Definition Of Ankle Sprains
The ankle sprain is an injury to the ligaments in the ankle.
Ligaments are strong elastic tissue that connect one bone to another bone.
Cause Of Ankle Sprains
Each ligaments in the ankle can be injured.
Ankle sprains occur because distorted so that the sole of the foot facing the other leg.
Factors that may increase the risk of ankle sprains are:
- Loosening of ligaments in the ankle
- Weakness or damage to the nerves of the leg muscles
- Certain types of shoes (eg high heels)
- Certain running patterns that tend to allow the foot is turned.
Symptoms Of Ankle Sprains
Weighing sprain depends on the severity of stretching or tearing of ligaments:
- Degree 1: mild sprain.
- Ligaments are stretched but not experiencing tear.
- The ankle is usually not too bloated, but its mild sprain that could increase the risk of re-injury.
- Degree 2: moderate sprain.
- Some suffered torn ligaments.
- Swelling and bruises clearly visible, and the patient had difficulty in walking and running normally cause pain.
- Grade 3: severe sprain
- Suffered torn ligaments in total, resulting in swelling and sometimes bleeding under the skin. As a result, the ankle becomes unstable and unable to withstand the load.
Complications Of Ankle Sprains
Sometimes in severe ankle sprains could causes trouble in the future though ligament has improved.
A nodule (bump) small can arise in one ankle ligaments and causing friction that settled in the joints, causing chronic inflammation and can eventually cause damage to settle.Injection of a mixture of corticosteroid into the ankle can reduce inflammation and given local anaesthetic to numb often bring improvement. Surgery is rarely necessary.
A nerve that runs on one of the ankle ligaments can also be damaged.The result is pain and tingling (neuralgia). To fix can be given an injection of local anaesthetic.
Patients often run in the tendon (strong and flexible network that connects muscle to bone or muscle to muscle) on the outside of the ankle, causing excessive inflammation.This condition is called tenosynovitis peronealis, which can cause swelling and tenderness on the outside of the ankle. Ankle pads used to restrict the movement of the ankle joint. Injections of cortisone into the tendon wrapping can also be done, but should not be excessive.
Sometimes the shock of a severe sprain causes spasms in the blood vessels in the ankle, causing reduced blood flow. As a result, bone and other tissues can be damaged from lack of blood. Condition called reflex sympathetic dystrophy or atrophy Suddeck, which can cause pain and swelling of the feet. Pain is often very intense and moving from one place to another in the ankle and foot.
Patients underwent physical therapy and get pain medication.
To cope with the severe chronic pain, do the following:
- The injection of a local anaesthetic into or around the nerves leading to the ankle
- Psychic guidance.
Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome is pain settled in the area between the heel bone (calcaneus) and the ankle bone (talus), which occurs after an ankle sprain. This may be associated with partial tearing of the ligaments in the foot inside. Given an injection of corticosteroid and local anesthetic.
Diagnosis Of Ankle Sprains
Physical examination of the ankle showed extensive ligament damage.
X-rays done to determine whether there has been a fracture, not to determine whether the ankle was sprained.
Other tests are rarely needed.
Treatment Of Ankle Sprains
Treatment depends on the severity of the disease.
In mild sprains do the following:
- Ankles and feet wrapped with elastic bandage
- Compress with ice cubes
- Lifting the ankle
- Gradual return to running and sports activities.
In moderate sprains, usually leg cast for 3 weeks.
- Installation of gypsum is causing lower leg can not be moved, but people can still walk.
In a severe sprain may need surgery.
- Before returning heavy activity, the patient should undergo physical therapy to restore movement, muscle strength and improve balance.
Preventions Of Ankle Sprains
In the simple sprain, following injury can be prevented by wearing an ankle brace and install the tool on the shoe to stabilize the foot and ankle.