Ankylosing spondylitis Singapore
Ankylosing spondylitis is a form of chronic inflammation of the spinal column (spine) and the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliac joints). The sacroiliac joints are located in the low back where the sacrum (bone directly above the tailbone) meets the iliac bones (bones on either side of the upper buttocks). Chronic inflammation in these areas causes pain and stiffness in and around the spinal column (spine). Over time, chronic spinal inflammation (spondylitis) can lead to a unification with fully (fusion) of the vertebrae, a process referred to as ankylosis. Ankylosis lead to loss of mobility of the spine (spine).
Ankylosing spondylitis is also a systemic rheumatic disease, meaning it can affect other tissues throughout the body. Because of this, it can lead to inflammation or injury to other joints away from the spine, as well as in other organs, such as the eyes, heart, lungs, and kidneys.
Ankylosing spondylitis shares many features with several other arthritis conditions, such as psoriatic arthritis, reactive arthritis, and arthritis associated with Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (ulcerative colitis). Each of these arthritic conditions can cause disease and inflammation in the spine, other joints, eyes, skin, mouth, and various organs. Given that equation and their tendency menyebabka inflammation of the spine, these conditions are collectively referred to as “spondyloarthropathies”.
Ankylosing spondylitis is two to three times more common in men than in women. In women, joints are far away from the spine more frequently affected than in men. Ankylosing spondylitis affects all age groups, including children. The most common age of onset of symptoms is in the second and third decades of life.
Symptoms – symptoms and effects of Ankylosing spondylitis:
- The onset of symptoms to incidental / suddenly, can be: pain or stiffness in the spine. The first time is usually perceived hip joint area then spread upward, straight into the lower spine (lumbar region), the backbone area (thoracic), and the neck vertebrae (cervical).
- Inflammation of the spine causes pain and stiffness in the lower back, upper buttock area, neck, and spine rest. Pain and stiffness is usually gradual and progressively worsens over several months
- Beware frequent bone fractures in the lower back region (lumbar) and neck bones (lower cervical)
- If the disease continues to affect breathing because of chest expansion disrupted. Ankylosing spondylitis can cause inflammation and scarring in the lungs, causing coughing and shortness of breath, especially with exercise and infections. Therefore, difficulty breathing can be a serious complication of ankylosing spondylitis.
- Patients with ankylosing spondylitis can also have arthritis in joints other than the spine (spine). Patients may feel pain, stiffness, heat, swelling, warmth and / or redness in the joints such as the hips, knees, and wrists. Sometimes, the bones of the small joints of the toes can become inflamed, or form “sausage”. Some patients with this disease develop Achilles tendinitis, causing pain and stiffness in the back of the heel, especially if it contradicts with the feet while riding the stairs. Inflammation of the tissues of footwear, plantar fasciitis, occurs more frequently in people with ankylosing spondylitis.
- Other areas of the body that is affected by ankylosing spondylitis, including the eyes, heart, and kidneys. Patients with ankylosing spondylitis can develop inflammation of the iris, called iritis.
- A rare complication of ankylosing spondylitis involves scarring of the heart’s electrical system, causing an abnormally low heart rate. A pacemaker device may be necessary in these patients to maintain heart rate and results (output) is adequate. Part aorta closest to the heart can become inflamed, resulting in leakage of the aortic valve. These patients may develop shortness of breath, dizziness, and heart failure.
- Spondylitis which can further lead to deposits called amyloid into the kidneys and result in kidney failure. Progressive kidney disease can lead to chronic fatigue and nausea and can require removal of blood toxins that accumulate with a filtering machine (dialysis).
What causes Ankylosing Spondylitis Singapore
The tendency to develop ankylosing spondylitis is believed to be genetically inherited, and the majority (almost 90%) of patients with ankylosing spondylitis are born with the HLA-B27. Blood tests have been developed to detect the gene marker HLA-B27 and has advanced our understanding of the relationship between HLA-B27 and ankylosing spondylitis.
HLA-B27 gene appears only increase the tendency to develop ankylosing spondylitis, which be some additional factors, perhaps environmental, are necessary for the onset of the disease or become apparent.
For example, when 7% of the American population have the HLA-B27 gene, only 1% of the population actually has the disease ankylosing spondylitis. In northern Scandinavia (Lapland), 1.8% of the population mepunyai ankylosing spondylitis while 24% of the general population have the HLA-B27 gene. Even among individuals with positive HLA-B27, the risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis appears more related to the offspring. In individuals with positive HLA-B27 who have brothers with the disease, their risk of developing ankylosing spondylitis is 12% (six times greater than those who do not have any brothers ankylosing spondylitis).
More recently, two more genes have been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis. These genes are called ARTS1 and IL23R. These genes seem to play a role in influencing immune function. It is anticipated that by understanding the effects of each of the known genes, the researchers will make significant progress in finding a cure for ankylosing spondylitis.
How inflammation occurs and settled in the organs and joints are different in ankylosing spondylitis is a matter of active research. Each individual tends to have unique patterns of presence and activity of the disease themselves.
Initial inflammation may be a result of the activity of the body’s immune system by a bacterial infection or a combination of infectious germs. Once activated, the body’s immune system becomes unable to extinguish it themselves, although initial bacterial infection may have been lost forever. Chronic tissue inflammation resulting from a continuous activity of the body’s immune system in the absence of active infection is a sign of an autoimmune inflammatory disease.
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