Pain emanating from various structures of the spine is a major cause of chronic pain problems.

The facet or zygapophysial joints of the spine are well innervated by the medial branches of the dorsal rami [11-15]. Facet joints have been shown capable of causing pain in the neck, upper and mid back, and low back with pain referred to the head or upper extremity, chest wall, and lower extremity.

 

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