Frozen shoulder is a term which is a container for all disorders of the shoulder joint that causes pain and limitation of range of motion either actively or passively due adhesive capsulitis caused the joint capsule adhesion  which is more appropriate to classify them in groups periarthritis.

Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)

Frozen Shoulder (Adhesive Capsulitis)

Symptoms of Frozen Shoulder

Frozen shoulder is a chronic disease with typical symptoms such as shoulder pain and limitation of motion of the shoulder joint that can lead to disruption of daily work activities.

The etiology of frozen shoulder is still not known with certainty. The factors include long periods of immobilization, trauma, over use, injury or surgery to the joint, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease, clinical depression, and Parkinson’s.

Frozen shoulder can be caused by trauma, prolonged immobilization, immunology, and its relation to other diseases, such hemiparese, ischemic heart disease, pulmonary tuberculosis, chronic bronchitis and diabetes mellitus and suspected disease is an autoimmune response to the destruction of the local network.

The several theories put forward the American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeons in 2000 regarding frozen shoulder, the theory is:

  1. Hormonal theory. In general, frozen shoulder occurs 60% of the women along with the onset of menopause.
  2. Genetic theory. Several studies have genetic components of frozen shoulder, for example, there are some cases where identical twins must have suffered at the same time.
  3. Theory auto immune. Presumably this disease is an auto immune response to the outcome of damage to the local network.
  4. Theory posture. Many studies have not believed that the long standing stalwart and postures causes a shortening of the shoulder ligaments.

Immobilization of too long in arm and causes the pain to the shoulder is the sign of the frozen shoulder. Immobilizing arm length will cause static secondary veins and congestion along with vasospastik, it will cause a reaction protein deposits, edema, exudate, and that finally happened fibrous joint capsule will contractures and loss of inferior folds of joints, joint capsule fibrosis increases so easily torn when the shoulder joint moves abduction and rotation. Fibrous joint capsule will result in adhesion between layers subdeltoidea exchanges, and intra-articular adhesion arthrikuler extra. Adhesion will result in movement of the joint capsule of the shoulder joint is limited.

Adhesive capsulitis is a continuation of the rotator cuff lesions, due to inflammation or degeneration which extends around and into the joint capsule and cause fibrous reaction. The existence of fibrous reaction may be aggravated due to too long to let the arm in a position that is too long impingement

Frozen shoulder is divided into 3 stages:

  1. Pain (Freezing): characterized by intense pain even at rest, the motion of the shoulder joint will be limited during the acute period of 2-3 weeks and ended till 10-36 weeks.
  2. Stiffness (Frozen): characterized by pain when moving, stiffness or adhesion real and limitation of motion of the glenohumeral which is followed by limited motion scapula. This phase ends 4-12 months.
  3. Recovery (thawing): in this phase revealed no pain and no synovitis but there are limitations due to adhesion real motion. This phase ends 6-24 months or more.

Treatments For Frozen Shoulder

Given the extent of movement of the shoulder joint is a very important factor to do in relation to improving the quality of movement and function, the effort and improvement is through oral mediacations, physiotherapy, manipulation under anesthesia  or/and shoulder arthroscopy and debridement.

This all type of treatments is to maintain and improve range of motion, maintain muscle strength. With all of these treatments are expected to achieve the main goal for the long-term return to normal functional activities.

Need Consultation?  Please contact us by calling (65) 64762106 or Schedule an Appointment here on our website. Our professional  orthopedic specialist, Dr. Kevin Yip, has more than 20 years experience. Be assured that you will be receiving professional treatments that suit your needs. Consultations are covered by most insurance.

Related Articles

Leave a reply