Sliding joints, or in medical language, are called dislocations, are conditions in which two bone surfaces connected by a joint are separated, or the bone shifts from its attachment to the joint. The joint can shift partially (subluxation), or shift completely. All joints in the human body can experience dislocation.

Joints prone to dislocation

The joints of the body which are most susceptible to dislocation, namely the shoulder joint, knee, elbow, hip, and jaw (temporomandibular joint). The following is an explanation of each of these joints.

Shoulder Joint Dislocation

The shoulder joint is the joint that most often moves on the body. This is also what causes the shoulder joint to be very vulnerable to shift. Shoulder joint dislocation often occurs in adolescents or young adult men around the age of 20 years, namely the most physically active age group. Shoulder joint dislocation most often occurs due to trauma, especially due to exercise.

Read more: Shoulder dislocation and treatment

Elbow Joint Dislocation

Elbow joint dislocation is the most common dislocation in children, and the second is most common in adulthood after shoulder joint dislocation. The elbow joint is a very stable hinge joint. It takes trauma that is hard enough to cause the elbow joint to slide. Sports injuries include 50% of the causes of dislocation of the elbow joint, and this condition mainly occurs in young adults.

No specific exercise increases the risk of shifting the elbow joint, but exercise that can cause falls with the position of the open arm increases the risk of elbow joint dislocation. Elbow joint dislocation need immediate treatment because if they are late they can cause nerve damage and long-term dysfunction.

Read more: Elbow dislocation and treatment

Knee Joint Dislocation

The knee joint is the joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) with the shin and calf bone. The knee joint is maintained by the ligament, which is a strong structure shaped like a ribbon. There are several ligaments that cross each other around the knee joint, so the knee joint is actually a very stable joint.

If the ligament in the knee joint is torn, the bones it supports can shift. Handling of an inappropriate or late knee joint dislocation can cause the limbs to be amputated. Shifting knee joints are usually caused by very hard trauma, for example due to falls or collisions in motorized accidents

Hip Joint Dislocation

Like the shoulder, the hip joint is also a bullet joint, which is a joint that can move in many directions. This hip joint connects the thigh bone (femur) whose head resembles a ball, with a hollow in the hip bone. The hip joint is a joint that allows us to step forward, back or to the side.

If hip joint dislocation occurs, the round tip of the femur shifts from the basin where it originated. The femur bone can be shifted forward or backward. Backward shifts occur in 90% of cases, and most are caused by motor vehicle accidents, especially if they occur at less than 35 years of age. Shifting the hip joint can also be caused by falls, which often occurs in the elderly (over 65 years). Hip joint dislocation is an emergency condition that requires immediate treatment

Jaw Joint Dislocation

The jaw joint or temporomandibular joint is a hinge joint that connects the lower jaw bone to the skull bone. The binding tissue around the joint is very strong, forming the temporomandibular joint. This joint allows movement of opening and closing the mouth. The temporomandibular joint dislocation may not appear as clear as the shift in the other large joints.

The most common symptom of this sliding joint, the jaw appears asymmetrical, cannot close the mouth completely, and is difficult to chew or speak. Aside from trauma, the jaw joint can also shift due to habits that weaken the structure around the joint, such as opening the mouth wide when yawning or often bite hard objects or food.

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