Low back pain ( or lumbago) is a common musculoskeletal disorders affecting 80% of people at some point in their life. It accounts for more sick leave and disability than any other medical condition. It can be either acute, subacute or chronic in duration. Most often, the symptoms of low back pain show significant improvement within a few weeks from onset with conservative measures.
The causes of lower back pain are varied. A traumatic event may result in either muscular pain or a vertebral fractures. At the lowest end of the spine, some patients may have tailbone pain (also called coccyx pain or coccydynia). Others may have pain from their sacroiliac joint, where the spinal column attaches to the pelvis, called sacroiliac joint dysfunction. Physical causes may include osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, degeneration of the discs between the vertebrae or a spinal disc herniation, a vertebral fracture (such as from osteoporosis), or rarely, an infection or tumor.
One method of classifying lower back pain is by the duration of symptoms: acute (less than 4 weeks), sub acute (4–12 weeks), chronic (greater than 12 weeks).
Most cases of lower back pain are due to benign musculoskeletal problems and are referred to as non specific low back pain. They are generally believed to be due to a sprain or strain in the muscles of the back, especially if the pain arose during physical load to the back. The rate of serious causes is less than 1%. The full differential diagnosis includes many other less common conditions.
inflammatory: Ankylosing spondylitis · Sacroiliitis · Discitis · Pott disease
Neck pain · Upper back pain · Low back pain (Coccydynia, Sciatica)

 

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