Polymyositis is a condition that causes inflammation and weakness in the muscles. This disease can affect the work of the muscles throughout the body, but generally attacks the muscles of the shoulders, thighs and hips. Women and people aged 30-60 years are a group at risk of suffering from polymyositis.
Polymyositis sufferers usually have difficulty lifting the body after sitting, reaching and lifting weights or objects, and climbing stairs. Until now, polymyositis has not been cured. However, polymyositis treatment can be done with physical therapy and other forms of treatment that focus on increasing muscle strength and function.
General symptoms of polymyositis are characterized by weakening of the muscles on both sides of the body (right and left). The weakness is especially felt in the neck muscles, shoulders, back, thighs, and pelvis.
Other symptoms that polymyositis can cause are: Pain and swelling in the muscles. Joint pain. Fatigue. Fever. Raynaud’s phenomenon, which is a condition in which the fingers or toes become cold and change color due to interference with the bloodstream. Difficulty swallowing. Short breath caused by heart and lung disorders. Weight loss. Red or purple area around the eyes. Some people also experience reddish skin on the elbows, knees and knuckles, and red rashes on the neck and upper chest.
Not yet known exactly the cause of polymyostitis. However, this condition is thought to be related to offspring. Recent research states that polymyositis can occur when the immune system (immune system) attacks muscle tissue as an autoimmune reaction. However, this still needs to be proven further.
Sometimes polymyositis disease is wrongly interpreted as a condition of muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the doctor will examine the patient carefully so that the diagnosis is not wrong. The doctor will diagnose patients who have indicated polymyositis by asking for a medical history and conducting a physical examination. Muscle biopsy by taking a sample of muscle tissue and examining it under a microscope is an examination that can be done to determine the diagnosis of polymyositis.
In addition, a number of other tests were also conducted, such as:
Blood test for creatine phosphokinase (CPK) to see how much muscle damage. MRI to see signs of inflammation in the muscles. Electromyography to see electrical activity in muscles.
There are no drugs that can cure polymyositis. However, steps to treatment can still be done to overcome the symptoms that are felt. The type of treatment depends on the age, symptoms, and health conditions. In the treatment of polymyositis, patients may undergo more than one method of treatment. Treatment is also flexible, can be changed at any time according to the patient’s condition.
Some polymyositis treatment methods, including:
Corticostreroid is useful for relieving inflammation in the body. Doctors will gradually reduce the dose of corticosteroids to reduce side effects, along with improving symptoms.
This drug is useful for suppressing or inhibiting the immune system.
Various forms of exercises that focus on strengthening and stretching the muscles can be done. Resting, compressing with warm water, and using a corset or other brace, can help reduce symptoms and help with muscle movement.
Unmanaged polymyositis can worsen, and risk complications, in the form of: Infection. Aspiration pneumonia. Interstitial lung disease or pulmonary fibrosis. Heart rhythm disorders. Heart failure. Pericarditis. Heart attack. Dysphagia. Malabsorption. In addition to complications due to polymyositis disease itself, complications can also occur due to the use of steroid drugs to treat inflammation. Among these are osteoporosis.
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