Scoliosis is an abnormal curvature of the spine to the side, which can occur in segments of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest) and lumbar (loin).
Approximately 4% of all children aged 10-14 years had scoliosis; 40-60% were found in girls.
Causes Of Scoliosis
There are three general causes of scoliosis:
- Congenital (default), usually associated with an abnormality in the formation of the spine or ribs fused
- Idiopathic, the cause is not known.
- Neuromusculer, handling bad muscle or muscle weakness or paralysis due to the following diseases:
- Cerebral palsy
- Muscular dystrophy
- Osteoporosis juvenile
Symptoms Of Scoliosis
- The spine curves abnormally to the side
- Shoulder and / or hip left and right are not as high
- Back pain
- Fatigue in the spine after sitting or standing long
- Severe scoliosis (a curvature greater than 60?) Can cause respiratory problems.
Most of the upper back, the spine bends to the right and in the lower back, the spine bends to the left; so that the right shoulder is higher than the left shoulder. Right hip may also be higher than the left hip.
Diagnosis Of Scoliosis
On physical examination the patient is usually asked to bend forward so that the examiner can determine the curvature of the case.
Examination of neurological (nerve) was performed to assess the strength, sensation or reflex.
Other tests are performed:
- X-rays of the spine
- Measurements with scoliometer (instrument for measuring the curvature of the spine)
- MRI (if found neurological disorders or abnormalities on x-ray).
Treatments For Scoliosis
Treatment depends on the cause, degree and location of the curvature as well as bone growth stage.
If the curvature is less than 20?, Usually do not need treatment, but the patient should undergo regular examinations every 6 months.
In children who are still growing, the curvature usually increased to 25-30?, Because it is usually advisable to use a brace (braces) to help slow the progression of spinal curvature. Brace of Milwaukee and Boston are effective in controlling the progression of scoliosis, but must be installed for 23 hours / day until the child stops growing.
Brace is not effectively used in congenital and neuromuscular scoliosis.
If the curvature reached 40? or more, usually do surgery. In efforts to improve the curvature of surgery and melting the bones. Preserved bone in place with the aid of metal tools installed 1-2 until bone repair (less than 20 years).
Performed after surgery may be fitted brace to stabilize the spine.
Sometimes given electrospinal stimulation, spinal muscle which is stimulated by low electric current to straighten the spine.
Prognosis Of Scoliosis
Prognosis depends on the cause, location and severity of the curvature.
The greater the curvature of scoliosis, the higher the risk of progression after the growth of children passed.
Mild scoliosis brace only be overcome with a good prognosis and are likely not cause long-term problems in addition to the possibility of back pain at the time of patient age increased.
Patients with idiopathic scoliosis who underwent surgery also has a good prognosis and can live active and healthy.
Patients with neuromuscular scoliosis have always had other serious diseases (such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy). Since the aim of the surgery is usually possible child can sit upright in a wheelchair.
Babies with congenital scoliosis have a number of underlying deformity, so treatment for this condition is not easy and should be done several times a surgery.
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