SCOLIOSIS is an abnormal curvature of the spine to the side, which can occur in segments of cervical (neck), thoracic (chest) and lumbar (loin). Approximately 4% of all children aged 10-14 years had scoliosis, 40-60% of which are found in girls.
Causes of Scoliosis
There are three general causes of scoliosis:
- Congenital (inborn), is usually associated with a defect in the formation of vertebrae or fused ribs
- Idiopathic, of unknown cause.
- Neuromuscular, poor muscle control or muscle weakness or paralysis due to the following diseases:
- Cerebral palsy
- Duchenne muscular
- Osteoporosis juvenile
Symptoms of Scoliosis
- The spine curves abnormally to the side
- Shoulder and / or hip left and right are not as high
- Back pain
- Fatigue in the spine after sitting or standing long
- Severe scoliosis (a curvature greater) can cause respiratory problems.
Most of the upper back, the spine bends to the right and in the lower back, the spine bends to the left, so that the right shoulder is higher than the left shoulder. Right hip may also be higher than the left hip.
Diagnosis of Scoliosis
On physical examination the patient is usually asked to bend forward so that the examiner can determine the curvature of the case.
Examination of neurological (nerve) was performed to assess the strength, sensation or reflex.
Other tests are performed:
- X-rays of the spine
- Measurements with scoliometer (instrument for measuring the curvature of the spine)
- MRI (if found neurological disorders or abnormalities on x-ray).
Treatment for Scoliosis
Treatment depends on the cause, degree and location of the curvature as well as bone growth stage. If the curvature is less than 20 degree?, Usually do not need treatment, but the patient should undergo regular examinations every 6 months.
In children who are still growing, the curvature usually increased to 25-30 degree?, Because it is usually advisable to use a brace (braces) to help slow the progression of spinal curvature. Brace of Milwaukee and Boston are effective in controlling the progression of scoliosis, but must be installed for 23 hours / day until the child stops growing.
Brace is not effectively used in congenital and neuromuscular scoliosis. If the curvature reaches 40? or more, usually surgery.
At surgery done to improve the curvature and bone fusion. Bones kept in place with the aid of metal tools attached 1-2 until the bones recovered (less than 20 years).
After the surgery may need to be fitted brace to stabilize the spine.
Sometimes given elektrospinal stimulation, in which spinal muscles are stimulated with low amperage to straighten the spine.